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Thursday, May 9, 2019

How do i make my love like me

I met a guy at a party and fell in love with him. But all these while, it’s like the love is one-sided and I seem to bethe one showing all the love. He’s so dormant about everything and it’s frustrating. I like the guy but I want to get him to like me. How can I do that?Annabel, LagosDear Annabel,As a young lady, it’s normal to start having feelings for other people. It might be a friend you’ve had for a long time, someone in your trade or someone you know through activities or hobbies outside of school or work. Unfortunately, we can’t make someone like us.But if we start to talk with them and get to know them, they can learn more about us and they might start tolike us or look at us in a different way,as more than just a friend and possibly a girlfriend.It helps if you have something in common with them, like a favourite issue or football team—anything where you share a common interest. This will give you something to talk and have a connection about. Once you start talking to them and feel more comfortable, you may get a sense of if they like you or not.If you’re feeling brave, you could ask them how they feel about you or let them know that you like them, and see what their response is.A lot of people get embarrassed about telling someone they like them. Instead of saying it directly, you couldshow him in other ways, such as mucking around and trying to have fun with him, teasing him in a playful way, or by flirting with him. Sometimes it helps if you know one of their friends and can find out that way if they like you, if they already have a girlfriend/boyfriend, or if they have someone else.The best thing to do is be yourself when you’re around him. This way, he will get to know you for who you are. If he likes you, that’s great. If not, there are plenty of guys out there whowill.Good luck!I really want to ask her out but I get sonervousDear Aunty Julie,I really like this course mate of mine. She is so nice and caring and kind and generous, and also really pretty. I’ve tried flirting with her but it doesn’twork. Also, I always try to say hi to herseductively so it sounds sexy, but her voice is so cute and it makes me feel dreamy.I’ve caught her gaze in class a few times and her big brown eyes are so beautiful. I have also hugged her once and I think I was so caught up day dreaming that I didn’t hear her saying to let go. I also play dumb so she can help me with my projects. I really want to ask her out but I get so nervous trying to ask. How do I do it?Fabian, LokojaHello FabianThe quickest way is to just ask her ona date, straight up. Something like during the weekend . But if you feel like it’s too direct for you, maybe thereare some other ways you can spend more time together, like hanging out in a group, or helping with homework, or even doing something together where you share the same interest. Basically, it boils down to a bit of creativity, patience and courage.You choose your own adventure. Honesty helps. If you’re happy to hang out as friends, then get to know her that way. Friendship can be the best start to some fantastic relationships.But if you’re frustrated because really you want a more romantic relationship, the only way to fix that isto ask her out straight up. You’ll risk rejection, but you won’t waste time agonizing about whether she likes you or not.Just remember that everyone has personal preference about their own taste, and it’s human nature that sometimes someone will be attractedto you but you might not like them. It’s just preference. I hope this lady shares your feelings and you have a great time together. You certainly deserve to have a fun, romantic relationship. Everyone does. Enjoy yourself, whatever happens in your own adventure, and feel free to write back!Should I continue trying for her ?Hello Aunty Julie,I’m a 28 year old man. I’ve loved this lady for two years but sometimes when I talk to her, it feels like she’s just talking to me so as not to offend me. I also feel like she’s never noticing me but everyone does.I have recently been asked out by some ladies in the past two months and I rejected all of them because there was the one lady who I truly care about. I need help on whether I should continue trying for her or to give up and walk away.Yinka, AbeokutaHello Yinka,I really admire you for that. Sounds like you’re reaching the end of your patience though. Should you give it one last try, or is it time to let go and move on? How much do you like her? Is there anyone else who you find attractive? If there is, what would you lose by starting something with them? Let’s argue it out…There are so many ladies you could choose from. Ladies came up to you, and you weren’t even trying. Massive chance that there’s another one who is just as good as this one you’re after. Good chance that you will find another who’s even better—there’s always that possibility. You can always be surprised by something turning out even better than you had imagined.So, stop wasting time and energy waiting for this lady. She clearly is notinterested in you, she’s just being polite. I mean, she doesn’t even notice you, but everyone else does. But if she’s the one you truly care about, make sure you do everything you can to build a relationship with this lady. You should either wait patiently for her, or you should do as much as you can to get her attention and ask her out until she says yes or no for good.So, what do you think? Which one wins: option A or option B? If you’re having trouble, go with how your gut feels, or your heart. Then, if there’s anything that stops you from choosing A or B 100%, ask yourself, what do I need to feel more happy with this decision? Maybe you need to check out if there’s another lady you like first. Maybe you need to talk with this lady a little, or ask her something. You choose.He proposed love to me and I blocked himAunty Julie,Several months ago, I met a guy online through Facebook. He was nice, and as we started talking over the next month or two, he expressed his affection towards me. He was 36 by the way.He told me I was perfect, beautiful, that he loved me. I got nervous because a total stranger was telling me these things, so I blocked him. Now I feel guilty, because he wasn’t really doing anything wrong. What should I do?JosephineDear Josephine,His comments were nice but a bit over the top and it sounds like they made you feel uncomfortable. When something makes us uncomfortable it’s okay to protect ourselves. Sometimes, guys or ladies can say things that are over the top and it’s too much too soon because we feel like they don’t even know us.Are you worried about him? Is there anyone else on Facebook who knows him tooand can let you know he’s okay?On the internet sometimes, people pretend to be someone young to contact ladies for creepy reasons. If you ever feel uncomfortable, you havea right to stop it or leave. Look after yourself .
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Hospitality industry

The hospitality product or industry consists of tangible and intangible elements of food drink and accommodation together with the service, atmosphere and image that surround and contribute to the industry. The hospitality industry contains many of the characteristics of service industries with the added complications of the production process. It is the production process which is the complicated element as it focuses on the production and delivery often within a set period of time. The need to provide the appropriate environment within which hospitality can be delivered means that most hospitality businesses need a substantial amount of investment in plant and premises. This creates a high fixed cost/low variable cost structure. The variable cost in servicing a room are minimal although the hotel itself, particularly in the luxury hotel market has a high fixed cost. In general the financial break-even point for hospitality businesses often is reasonably high. Exceeding this level will result in high profits, but low volumes will result in substantial losses.
Hospitality services suffer from fluctuation in demand. This demand will fluctuate overtime and the type of customer. Forecasting business is therefore often difficult because of the mixture of patterns and variables which can affect demand, making planning, resourcing and scheduling difficult.
Hospitality cannot be delivered without customers, who are involved in many aspects of the delivery of the hospitality service.
Achieving a satisfactory balance between demand patterns, resource scheduling and operational capacity is a difficult task for managers in hospitality. Managing customer demand to achieve optimum volume at maximum value is extremely complex. Too few customers could mean the required capacity or resources, often means that the customers experience suffers leading to dissatisfaction. Scheduling of resources is also difficult. If too many staff are on duty to cover the forecast demand, then profitability suffers. Insufficient staffing creates problems, with servicing and staff morale.
Forecasting is therefore a crucial function which contributes to the successful operation of the hospitality business.
The ability to deliver a consistent product to every customer is also an important consideration. Staff must be trained in teams to deliver a consistent standard of product and service. This means been able to cater not just for individual customers but to the needs of many different groups of customers all with slightly different requirements.
The success of any customer experience will be determined at the interaction between the customer and the service provider.
The service staff have an additional part to play in serving the customer. They are important in the future selling process, they should be trained to use the opportunity to generate additional revenue. From this analysis we are able to identify four characteristics of the hospitality industry which make it a unique operation.
HOSPITALITY ARE IN THREE FOLD:
Provision of accommodation
Food preparation servicing and management
Catering indoor and outdoor
Accommodation
People in this area provide comfortably service to customer. Mostly they are housekeepers in hotels, government establishment, homes and schools.
Food service and Management
Specialist in this area can work in hospitals, hotels, govt. establishment, institutions, airlines, ships, and resort centers i.e. as stewards, supervisors or catering officers or managers.
Catering
Caterers prepare and cook food for boarding institutions, hotels, hospitals parties or other entertaining occasions.
PRINCIPLES OF ART AND DESIGN IN INTERIOR DECORATION
Interior decorations is the art of beautifying rooms and other indoor areas of a house so that they become attractive, comfortable, and useful. Floors, walls and ceilings are often decorated using furniture and fixtures, carpets and rugs, draperies or curtains, lightning, paint, wall coverings, hangings, flowers as well as many other items that may contribute to the creation of an interior that is beautiful. The principles of art and design are utilized in the careful selection of each item to suit the use of each area and the overall mood desired. The home is base for each family member. It should, therefore, be made as comfortable and attractive as possible for the proper development and relaxation of family members.
Certain basic principles of art and design are always combined in decorating every interior, whether it is a home, an office, a bank or an automobile. These principles include color, texture, style, form, pattern etc. each element can be used in various ways to produce a wide variety of effects. The way a person chooses to use each element depends on
a. The interior’s purpose,
b.  The mood to be created,
c. The interior architecture or design,
d. How all the elements combine with one another, and
e. Individual taste.
COLOUR
Color is very important in interior decoration. It make a room cheerful and welcoming, or depressing and dull. Color can thus change the mood of a room. It can also appear to change the size of a room. For instance, walls painted a dark color can make a room seem smaller than it is. Such colors make the walls seem closer to the center of the room than they actually are. On the other hand, bright colors can make a room appear larger and more airy because they make the walls seem farther away. Proper choice and combination of colors can make a simply furnished room look expensive, while the most costly furniture will look cheap if color choice is bad.
To be able to make the right choice and combination of colors, you must study the basic color wheel, color triangle, and color harmony.
The Color Wheel
This is an arrangement of colors in a circle, like the face of a round clock to show how they are related. A color wheel consists of:
1 Primary Colors: These are red, yellow and blue. They are placed at equal distance (or equidistant) on a color wheel. Other colors can be obtained by mixing the primary colors.
2 Secondary Colors: these are orange, green, and purple or violet. They are obtained by mixing equal parts of the primaries as shown below:
Red + yellow=orange
Yellow + blue = green
Blue + red = purple/violet.
3 Intermediate or Tertiary Colors:   there are six intermediate or tertiary colors. Each of these is a blend of a primary and secondary colors lying on either side of it. Intermediate colors include red-violet, blue-green, yellow-green, yellow-orange and red-orange. They are shown in fig.1.



Orange yellow Yellow green




Orange red
Green blue






Red purple                          Fig. 1: Color Wheel                                              Red blue
The Color Triangle
Two important colors, black and white do not appear anywhere on the color wheel. They fit into another world of colors by using a color triangle.
A color triangle has a color at one angle, black at another, and white at the third. If a color wheel such as red is mixed with white, the result is a tint – in this case pink. Red mixed with black gives a shade – in this case maroon. If red is mixed with both black and white the result is tone – in this case, rose.
A color from the color wheel can be mixed with:
a. White to make a tint, e.g. red + white = pink (a tint)
b. Black to make a shade, e.g. red + black = maroon (a shade)
c. Gray (i.e. a mixture of black and white) to make a tone, e.g. red + black and white = rose (a tone)
Color Harmony
Colors are beautiful by themselves. They can be used singly but two or more colors can be combined to produce a color harmony or color scheme. To obtain a beautiful harmony the correct colors and intensities should be combined. A poor combination produces a scheme that is clashing rather than beautiful.
Color schemes for the rooms of a house should be planned according to different color schemes or harmonies.



COLOUR HARMONIES


          

RELATED HARMONIES CONTRASTING HARMONIES
1 Monochromatic Harmony 1 Complementary Harmony
2 Analogous Color Harmony 2 Split-complementary Harmony
3 Accented Neutral Color Harmony 3 Triad Harmony
A color wheel or triangle may be used to find or build an attractive combination of colors.
Color harmonies or schemes can be grouped into two broad types. Each group can further be broken down into sub-groups as shown above.
Related Harmonies
Harmonies of related colors usually produce restful interior or costumes in clothing because of their unity. They include:
A. Monochromatic Color Harmony: it is the simplest color scheme. It makes use of variations or values of the same color.
B. Analogous or Adjacent Harmony: this is obtained by combining colors that lie next or adjacent to each other on the color wheel, e.g. yellows and oranges, or blues and greens
C. Accented Neutral Harmony: this uses a color triangle. In the color triangle, the colors in a straight line form pleasing combinations. See Fig.2.
A pure color, e.g. red, harmonizes with the following:
a. Its tint and white
b. Its shade and black
c. Its tone and gray.
A tint and a tone blend with black. A shade and a tone combine well with white.
Contrasting Harmonies
A. Complementary Harmony: this combines colors that lie opposite one another on the color wheel, e.g. yellow and violet/purple. Complementary color combinations should be developed very carefully, because such color make each other look much brighter. A large area of one color and a small area of its complement is good. An equal amount of each of two complementary colors is usually jarring or dashing, unless relieved by a large amount of neutral tones, e.g. bright blue and orange may be attractive as accents to a white a background.
B. Split-Complementary Harmony: here a color is combined with colors that lie on each side of its complement on the color wheel. To create a split-complementary harmony with yellow, for instance, first find its true complements which is violet or purple. Then take the colors on each side of violet, which is blue-violet or red-violet.
C. Triad harmony: this combines three colors that lie equally distant from each other on the color wheel, e.g. the primary colors, red, yellow, and blue; and orange, green and violet. Color harmonies or schemes in a home should be created to suit the tastes of the persons using specific rooms.
Guidelines for Color Distribution in Interior Decoration
Effective distribution of various colors throughout an interior is just as important to the decoration as the choice of the colors. For effective distribution:
Use very bright colors in small amounts or areas. Some colors seem beautiful in small amounts, but may lose their appeal or beauty on a large expanse of wall or on large furnishings. For instance, a small area of contrasting scheme of red and blue can be used beautifully to add interest to a basically monochromatic color harmony.
Test color samples in the type of light the room has. This is necessary because colors do not appear the same in daylight as in artificial light.
Use color distribution to emphasize or deemphasize the interior architecture or design, the furniture or other features of an interior.
A person can emphasize the furnishing more than the style or design of a room by painting the walls a neutral shade, e.g. white or cream. Such walls reflect and emphasize the colors used in the furnishings, curtains, floor coverings and accessories.
STYLE
Style is an element of art or design. It refers to the mood created by the combination of all the items in a room or interior. Style also refers to the different types of furnishings and designs of buildings developed during a particular period, e.g. traditional and modern styles of furniture.
Points to Consider in Choosing a Style in Interior Decoration
The design or architecture of the area being decorated
The needs of the people using the area.
The traditional and modern styles.
   These maybe combined in creating a mood or style for a given area.
Do not try to imitate the style of any one period.

Form
Form is another element of art or design. It refers to the shape and the structural materials of an interior itself and of an interior itself and of the furnishing within the interior.
In effective interior decoration:
The form of the furnishing should harmonize with the form of the interior.
All forms in an area should harmonize with one another. For instance, in the dining area the form or shape of the chairs should harmonize with that of the dining table.
All forms in an area should fit the mood for the area and its purpose. In a home, for instance, the soft upholstered chairs in a sitting room are suitable for relaxation and viewing of television. The same chairs, however, are unsuitable for a library or study.
Textures and Patterns
Texture refers to the surface appearance or feel of items such as curtains or draperies, carpets, rugs, and other things used for decorating the interior of a room. We can feel the texture of a material by touching it. Also when we do not touch things, our eyes can interprete textures.
Pattern refers to the design of those items used for decorating the interior, e.g. design on curtains and rugs. Pattern and texture are closely related. For example, patterns in some fabrics and floor and wall coverings give the illusion of variations in texture. Some textures, such as grained wood, create definite patterns.
Guidelines Underlying the Use of Textures and Patterns in Interior Decoration:
The amount and kind of use a room receives should determine the textures and patterns of furnishing. This is because slightly textured materials appear clean, longer than smooth-glossy surfaces. Also materials with patterns show dirt and wear less readily than plain or single-colored materials.
The mixture of textures and patterns of a room or interior should be well planned. Too many patterns with conspicuous colors are distracting and can become very tiresome. Interiors or rooms with too little or too great a variety of patterns and textures can affect people emotionally. For instance, a room that is entirely decorated with smooth textured white materials may bore people. Also a room decorated with an unplanned mixture of textured and patterned fabrics can agitate people mentally.
Texture that harmonizes with the color and light distribution of a room or interior should be used. This is because a texture affects color and light distribution. For instance, very smooth textures may reflect so much light that they create a mirror effect. But deep heavy textures absorb and distort light or reduce its intensity. As a result, a deeply textured cream carpet appears much darker than a smooth cream wall.
Textures and patterns should be used to emphasize or de-emphasize the design or architecture, furnishing or other features of a room. For instance, curtains covered with a bold pattern may be used to draw attention to a window area. Wood or marble floors can provide interesting patterns and textures that draw attention to the floors.
Different textures can be used in decorating a house, through the use of painting, curtains, draperies, carpets, and rugs.
PAINTING, WINDOW DECORATION AND FLOOR COVERINGS
In decorating a room, different types and colors of paints and paintings are often used. Windows and doors are decorated with curtains and draperies, while floors are covered with different types of materials, such as carpets and rugs. To select and use any of these materials, the principles of art such as color, texture and pattern should be considered.
PAINTING
A paint is any kind of preparation which dries and hardens to produce a solid, opaque, decorative or protective coating, when it is applied in a liquid form to a surface.
Uses of Paint in Interior Decoration:
1 To make a house beautiful by adding color to it
2 To protect the house from weather conditions, e.g. rain
3 Paints can be used to produce different textures such as a glossy, matt or rough textured surface.
There are different types of paint, each of which can produce different textures. Some of them are:
1 Emulsion Paints: Water is used as a thinner or solvent for emulsion paints. These paints are suitable for interior walls and ceilings and not for the external parts of the house. They are not suitable for the kitchen or bathroom as they would peel. Painted walls can be washed when dry.
2 Oil paints: These are hard-wearing and can be used on interior or exterior surfaces of the house. Oil-paints produce glossy surfaces that can be washed when dirty.
3 Gloss paints: These are tough and durable and give a high gloss finish. They are very suitable for painting wood and metal work both internally and externally. They are washable and good for windows.
Points to Consider When Choosing the Paint for a Room
1 The use of the room e.g. kitchen, bathroom, etc.
2 The persons to use the room, e.g. children’s room. Washable oil paints are suitable for         children’s rooms.
3 The size of the room. Some colors of paint can make a room look larger or smaller.
4 The color, textures and patterns of furnishing, floor cover, curtains, etc. to be used in the room.
5 The design or architecture of the room. For instance, painting the ceiling of a room a lighter color than the walls can make the ceiling seem higher than it is.
Painting one wall a lighter tint of color than that used on the other three walls can add depth to the room. The same effect may be achieved by painting three walls the same color and painting the fourth wall with darker color.

Points to Consider in Choosing Paintings for Interior Decorations
1 The color of the painting should harmonize with the color scheme of the room.
2 The texture of the painting, (that is the appearance of the surface of the painting) should also be in tune with the texture of the other things in the room.
3 The type of mood desired in the room should also be considered. For instance, a painting of a weeping woman or child with a rough texture can create a painful mood in the room.
4 The use to be made of the room should also determine the types of paintings to choose. Each room should be studied from varying view points, shapes, sizes, furniture, floor covering, use etc. before choosing a painting
CURTAINS AND DRAPERIES
These are materials used for decorating our windows and doors. Fabrics are usually used for curtains and draperies.
Uses of Curtains and Draperies
1 They shade the room from excessive light or glare and wind.
2 They provide privacy for families.
3 They beautify the room by adding color to it.
4 They establish the character and mood of a room.
5 They can be used to cover special areas or items such as books stored in an open book rack or shoes in a shoe rack.
Points to Consider in Choosing Curtains and Draperies
1 The Use of the Room: For instance, the curtains for the children’s room would not be the same as those for the sitting room or the kitchen.
2 The Purpose of the Curtains: They could be decorations or privacy or both.
3 The Shape and size of the Window or Doors: These will determine the quantity of fabric and the style to choose.
4 The Texture, Patterns, Weave and Color of the Fabric: These should match those of the other items in the room such as chairs, wall hangings, etc. Draperies that contrast with the color of walls draw attention to the shape of the windows. Draperies that match the wall coloring help the windows to blend into the walls.
5 The fabric should also be of good quality that will not shrink, or fray. It should also hang well.
6 The fabric should be color-fast so that it does not fade easily, especially if it is going to be hung in a sunny place.
7 The desired length for the curtain should be considered. It can be floor length or window length. Floor-length is more graceful.
8 Consideration should be made as to whether or not the curtains will be lined. This depends on taste and money available.
9 The style of curtain to make should be considered, depending on individual taste. The styles for the window and door blinds should be similar.
10 The money available for buying the curtain is also an important consideration. It should, however, be noted that buying very cheap materials could be false economy, since after one washing, such inferior curtains may shrink, lose all their dressing, and hang on the windows like pieces of rag.
Materials that are boldly patterned and colored should be color fast. The materials to be chosen should be suited to climate of the place where you live. Heavy materials, such as woolen fabrics, are suitable for colder or temperate countries. They can keep out draughts and keep the room warm.
Cotton, linen, and some polyester blends are good for the tropics such as Nigeria. They help to keep the rooms cool.
Before making a final decision on a fabric for curtains, it might be wise to bring a number of samples. Tape them lightly to the wall in turn, then stand well back and consider the effects of each sample in the room.
Steps in Making of Curtains and Draperies
1 Choose the right fabrics.
2 Take accurate measurements of windows and doors. To measure, first decide upon the desired length of the curtain. This is usually called depth. The measurement should be taken from the hanging rail to either the window-sill or to the floor. Allowances should be made for hems. The width of the curtain should be the measurement of the window plus at least half as much again. This will allow for fullness and drape, so that the window is well covered.
3 Cut the fabric. At this step special care needs to be taken to ensure that the patterns are arranged properly. The fabric should be cut in such a way that patterns are made to match during sewing.
4 Sew the curtain. Sewing should be done neatly. All raw edges should be perfectly finished.
Lined Curtains: Curtains can be lined by sewing on another fabric against the wrong side of the curtain. The lining material will depend on the type of curtain fabric. Lined curtains have the following advantages over the unlined ones:
a. Lined curtains hang better.
b. They last longer.
c. They are less likely to fade.
d. They can make the room warmer than unlined curtains.
Hanging or Fixing Curtains and Draperies
Curtains and draperies should be hung with the right side to the room not facing the window or outside. This is because it is inside of the room that is being decorated not the outside. Curtains are best hung on rails. They should be hung in such a way that they fall gracefully to the floor. They can be hung on made-to-show decorative rods with curtain rings or hooks or tapes.
Curtains are also commonly hung on rods which are concealed by window heading or shades.
Others Uses of Curtain in Interior Decoration
1 As screen for bed in one-room apartment: this is commonly used by persons who live in only one room. The curtain acts as the room divider.
2 Screen for bookshelf and shoe rack: a curtained bookshelf or shoe rack should be cheap substitute for cupboards with doors. They can also be used to add color to a room.
3 Curtained bed: curtains can be applied to a bed. There it acts as decoration as a means of shading the user from bright light.
4 Shower curtain: this is usually made of waterproof fabric. It is used to screen off the bathtub in the bathroom in order to prevent the splashing of water on the floor.        
FLOOR COVERINGS
Floor coverings from a background for the rest of the decoration of a room. There are different types of floor coverings, e.g. carpets and rugs, mats, etc.
Carpets and Rugs: these are floor coverings used in homes, offices, hotels, etc. A rug is smaller than a carpet. A rug covers just part of a floor but a carpet covers the entire floor of a given room. Carpets can be fastened down to the floor with glue. Carpets are woven, but not all rugs are woven. Rag rugs can be made from scarps or pieces of cloth. Carpets and rugs come in many colors, patterns, and textures. They are very important in interior decoration.
Uses of Carpets and Rugs
1 They help to unify the entire room by forming a background for all decorations of the interior, such as furniture.
2 They add warmth and comfort to a room.
3 They reduce noise (e.g. from shoes) and protect floors.
4 They add beauty to the room
5 They help to set the mood for the whole room.
6 They can blend the different colors used in decorating the room.
7 They can add to the beauty of other furnishings of a room.
Guidelines Underlying the Choice of Carpets and Rugs
1 Texture and Pattern of the Carpet or Rug: Plain carpets and those with small patterns tend to make a room appear larger. On the other hand large patterned and brightly colored carpets tend to make a room look overcrowded. A patterned carpet shows dirt less easily than a plain one. Therefore, in choosing/determining the texture and pattern of the carpet for any given room you must consider:
a. The size of the room.
b. The size, texture, and pattern of the other items in the room such as chairs.
Avoid too much pattern on carpet or rug if the curtain (and wall paper) are already boldly patterned.
2 Color Scheme of the Room: the color of the carpet or rug should match the color scheme of the room.
3 The Quality of the Rug or Carpet: it is advisable to buy the best rug or carpet which your money can purchase. A good carpet will give better wear and last longer.
4 Underlays: a carpet should have some form of underlays. These helps to create a luxurious feeling and also to help the carpet to wear better. A thin-layered foam is often used as underlay but one can use other materials, such as old newspapers or brown paper or an old carpet.
5 If the carpet is to cover the entire floor of a room, that is, wall-to-wall measure the size carefully to avoid waste.
Before laying the carpet or rug, ensure that the floor surface is clean, smooth, flat, and dry.
Other Floor Coverings
1 Linoleum: this is available in tile or sheet form. It can be plain or patterned. It should be chosen to fit the texture, pattern, and color scheme of the furnishing of a given room.
2 Mats: these can be made of different kinds of materials, such as leather, raffia, coconut leaves etc. They can also be painted to add floor to the room in which they are used. Different types of mats are available to different parts of Nigeria. For instance, the Hausa mat, the Igbo mat the Ikot Ekpene mat, etc.
3 Vinyl: vinyl tiles or sheet floor covering are available in a wide range of colors and design.
FUNITURE AND FIXTURES
Furniture is a set of movable articles such as chairs, tables, beds, book shelves, room dividers, etc. used in furnishing or decorating a room. Fixtures, on the other hand, are structures that are fixed permanently in the room such as tumbler racks, book shelves and flower pot holders braced, mounted or cantilevered to the wall. Water taps and kitchen sinks are also fixture. Furniture and fixtures can be made to look attractive and decorative in a room. They are found in every room of a house, including gardens. They can be made of natural and synthetic materials such as wood, plastics, porcelain, etc. They are available in different colors, textures and designs.
Guidelines Underlying the Selection of Furniture and Fixtures
Furniture and fixtures are normally expected to last a long time and should, therefore, be selected with care based on the following guidelines:
1 The furniture or fixture should be functional and of good design.
2 It should serve the purpose for which it is intended.
3 The color, textures and pattern of the furniture should fit or harmonize with those of other items in the room where it is going to be kept or used.
4 It should be durable and comfortable.
5 Consider the following construction details:
(i) The furniture should be well-furnished.
(ii) The joints should fit properly and firmly.
(iii) The fittings should be of good quality.
(iv) Drawers should open and shut, smoothly and easily.
(v) Upholstered furniture should be well-padded.
(vi) It should have a good clearance from the floor to facilitate easy sweeping and cleaning of the room. Heavy, awkward furniture is not easily moved or cleaned.
6 Test the furniture for these construction details before buying.
7 The furniture should be serviceable i.e. you should be able to repair it when any part of it gets spoilt.
ARRANGEMENT OF FURNITURE
The most expensive and comfortable furniture will not, of itself, make a room look beautiful unless it is properly arranged.
Guidelines for Arranging Furniture:
1 Arrange furniture for an easy flow of traffic or movement in the room.
2 Distribute the furniture evenly, with the largest pieces on the largest wall expanse or space.
3 Maintain a regular line of height by balancing pieces on opposite walls.
4 Where possible, place furniture parallel with wall rather than across corners.
Furniture and Fixtures in the Sitting Room
The sitting room is one of the most important rooms in a house. It is usually a meeting place and a center of activities in the home.
Uses of the Sitting Room
1 It is used as a relaxation center for the family.
2 It is used for receiving and entertaining visitors.
3 Part of it can be used as the dining area.
4 It is where we often display or exhibit family pictures and other precious collections such as paintings.
5 It often the center of many family and social activities such as parties, meetings, watching television, etc.
The sitting room is, therefore, often the part of the house where we can have the greatest number of people at a time. It thus receives a great deal to tear and wear. The sitting room should therefore, be kept as attractive as possible. The furniture and fixtures in the sitting room should be comfortable for relaxation. Its furniture should also be well-finished and durable. Furniture and fixtures for the sitting room can be grouped into:
a. The basic- those that are very necessary &
b. The optional- those that we can do without.
A. Basic Sitting room Furniture Includes:
1 A comfortable Suite: this is made up of two to four chairs, a single three-seater settee, a coffee table and four or more side stools or end tables. The number of chairs, however depends on the size of the room, the taste of the family, and money available. Upholstered chairs are beautiful and comfortable, but expensive. Where they cannot be afforded, ordinary spring armchairs with removable cushions can be purchased.
Fabrics and wood for the suite should be of durable texture and match the other decorations in the room properly in terms color and patterns. If chairs are too high, they will be unsuitable for little children.
2 Side-board or cupboard: this is used for storing crockery, cutlery, and table linens. It should provide a good storage space. The drawers should be deep enough to hold the articles, and they should run smoothly and have well-fitting handles.
B. Optional Sitting Room Furniture
The family can do without these, but they could be purchased where the money is available:
1 Television, radio, stereo set, videotape recorder, and related articles – these are useful for relaxation, news, etc.
2 Room dividers and wall cabinets- these are additional modern structures found in some sitting rooms. When placed against a wall they are called wall racks or cabinets. But when it is used to separate the sitting room from the dining section, it is called a room divider. These structures are used to hold flower vases, ornaments, music sets, television sets, pictures etc.
The walls of the sitting room look bare and unattractive without some decorations such as pictures and ornaments to add interest and color to them.
  The sitting room also needs curtain and floor coverings which match with the other things in the room in terms of color, texture, pattern, and style.
Fixtures in the Sitting Room Include:
(i) Picture rails made of wood at the top of the walls.
(ii) Curtain boards (pelmets) – which are wooden boards made to cover the top of the window or door blinds and curtains. They beautify the room. The curtain rails or rods are fixed within the curtain board.
(iii) Fans, lamp holders, and shapes, etc. These can serve both functional and decorative purposes.
Dining Room
The dining room is the room in which family members eat their meals. In some homes, the dining unit is a part of the sitting room, in others it could be in the kitchen, yet in others it is a separate room.
Whichever is preferred, the following pieces of furniture are required in the dining room or area:
1 A dining table that is large enough for the number of people who are going to use it. (Family size).
2 A number of chairs that are of the right height for the table and the persons using them. They should match the table in design, texture, and color.
3 A side cupboard for cutlery, glasses, table mats, and linen, etc. Drinks and food stuffs can also be stored in the cupboard.
4 A dining room trolley can be purchased, if it is considered necessary and the family can afford it. The trolley could be wooden, or finished with brass or other metal.
5 A dresser is an alternative to a side-cupboard. It could be cupboard with a glass for the storage of such items as crockery. Normally has a decorated top for the display of ornaments.
The Kitchen
The kitchen is the center for food storage, preparation, and service in the home. It needs to be well-planned and furnished so as to save labor, prevent accidents, create space, and ensure good health for the family. Different kinds of furniture and fixtures are found in both modern and traditional kitchens in Nigeria.
Modern Kitchen Furniture and Fixtures:
1 The kitchen sink with draining board is a common fixture in any modern kitchen. The sink can be stainless steel, porcelain of fiber glass. It should be large enough for the family. The draining boards should be at both sides of the sink. It could be made of the same materials as the sink or of wood. It can form a unit with the sink.
2 Kitchen taps are often fitted to the sink. The taps are best made of chromium, so that they can be easily cleaned. The hot and cold water taps should be clearly labelled. A hot water tap often has a red mark and a cold water tap has a blue mark.
3 The kitchen table provides a surface for food preparation, e.g. for mincing, shredding vegetables, making pastry.
4 The kitchen chair should be easy to clean and move about. It should be of a comfortable height for the worker.
5 The kitchen stool should be sturdy. It can be used to reach items stored in kitchen shelves that are out of the reach of the homemaker.
The kitchen chair could be steel or wooden. Where possible, the chair should match the kitchen table in terms of texture, pattern, and color. It should be of suitable height for the kitchen worker in relation to the table.
6 The kitchen utility cupboard or cabinet of about 1.20m high can be fixed or movable. The fixed or built-in cupboard is not very good under the sink as it is usually damp and may harbor insects, such as cockroaches. A cantilevered cupboard creates space and provides enough room for storage in the kitchen. The kitchen cupboard is used for storing kitchen utensils, such as pots, pans, spoons, knives, oven gloves, etc. The tops of kitchen cabinets can be used as working surfaces in the kitchen may be enamel, Formica, plain wood or stone slabs built into the wall.
7 The plate rack could be made of plastic tube reinforced with steel, tubular chromium-plated steel or made of wood, cantilevered above the sink. This is a useful fixture for drying as well as for sorting out the crockery.
8 The food safe is very important in the kitchen for protecting food from flies. It has a wooden framework covered with fine gauge wire. It is either hung from the ceiling or placed in such a way that the four legs are in bowls of disinfectant water, to prevent ants from entering into it.
9 Kitchen equipment includes large equipment such as cooking range, e.g. stove or gas/electronic cooker, refrigerator, deep freezers, etc. Small equipment includes blenders, grinders, cooking utensils, etc.
10 The kitchen should also be provided with good ventilation and light so that the worker or homemaker can see what she is preparing clearly.

A Traditional Nigerian Kitchen
A traditional Nigerian kitchen often has some basic fixtures and furniture. These include:
1 A fire place which can be fixed e.g. clay cookers, or movable e.g. a metal tripod or three big pieces of stones arrange in a triangular position on the floor.
2 A kitchen rack, which is often built above the fire place with bamboo or any other strong wood. It is used as a storage place for perishables such as smoked fish, pepper, maize, and other items which can be preserved by the heat from the fire place.
3 Kitchen stools, which are used for sitting while preparing food. They are usually very low.
Furniture and Fixtures in the Bedroom  
The bedroom should be made as comfortable as possible. Furniture and fixtures found in a bedroom include:
1 Bed: This should be suitable for the person using it. The framework of the bed can be made of metal or wood, or a combination of both. Whatever material is used, the framework of the bed must be given a perfect finish to avoid injuring the user.
2 Mattress: This should be comfortable. Mattress could be made of foam alone or foam with spring-interior. Spring mattresses are, however, giving way to foam because the springs become uncomfortable to the user as the paddings of the mattress wear off.
3 Wardrobe: This can be a built-in closet or a cupboard that is large and roomy enough for storing or hanging clothing articles.
4 Dressing Table: This usually has a mirror mounted on it and drawers which are large enough for storing minor body care tools, cosmetics, and small clothing articles such as handkerchiefs and underwear.
5 Comfortable Stool: this goes with the dressing table. This should match with the dressing table in design, pattern, and texture.
6 Bedside Cupboard: This can either be made as part of the bedstead or as a separate unit. When it is separate, it can be made to serve a dual purpose as a storage facility and a stool.
Fixtures Found in a Modern Bathroom
a. The Bath Tub: This can be made of iron covered with enamel or porcelain. The bath tub can come in different colors, sizes, and shapes. Colors scheme of the room.
b. Wash-hand Basin: This should be of the same color as the bath tub.
c. Small Bathroom Cupboard: This is often fitted with a mirror and fixed to the wall above the wash-hand basin. It is used for storing soap, sponge, tooth paste, tooth brushes, etc.
d. Electric Water-boiler or Heater: This is a common fixture in a modern bathroom.
e. Towel or Cloth Rail: This can be made of chromium or steel and fitted to the wall. It must be rustproof.
f. Soap and Sponge Rack: is also a common fixture found in a bathroom.
g. Shower Curtain. This is designed and fitted close to the bath tub to prevent the splashing of water on the floor when the bath tub is being used. It is made of water-proof material such as plastic sheets. It should match with the other fixtures in the bathroom in terms of color and pattern.
A Modern Toilet is Equipped with the Following Fixtures
(i) The toilet unit, which is made up of the toilet bowl, seat with cover and water tank with cover. The unit comes in different sizes, shapes, and colors. It is often made of porcelain.
(ii) A toilet paper holder for placing toilet paper.
(iii) A wash-hand basin could be available for washing hands after the use of the toilet.
(iv) A towel rail is useful in the toilet for placing clothes.
Other types of toilets are:
A. Bucket Toilet: This is now being rapidly replaced by the water-system toilet.
B. Pit Toilet: This is commonly found in rural areas. The pit is partially covered, leaving a small opening or “mouth”, which is provided with a lid or cover. A small hut is built over the pit.  
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EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF AN INSECT

THE INSECT’S CUTICLE

Unlike vertebrates, insects have no backbones. Instead, they have a tough outer support framework or exoskeleton called cuticle. The cuticle of each segment is formed into several hardened plates called sclerites, separated by infolds (sutures), which give it flexibility. The sclerite covering each segment can be divided into 4 main parts, namely, a dorsal region or tergum, a ventral region or sternum and on either side, a lateral region or pleuron. The sclerites are more developed in some parts of the insect than others e.g. pleural sclerites are more developed and pronounced on the thorax than the abdominal region. The uppermost layer of the insect cuticle is waxy in nature; it controls water permeability and prevents desiccation.




BODY SEGMENTATION

Like other arthropods, the insect’s body is segmented with jointed appendages. Generally, all insects have their bodies divided into three major regions namely – head, thorax and abdomen. Although the cuticle forms a continuous investment over the whole body of an insect, it usually remains membranous and flexible along certain lines so that the body is divided externally into a series of segments separated by intersegmental membranes.

The insect body comprises twenty (20) primitive segments, all of which may be apparent in the embryo. These segments are grouped into well defined regions – the head, thorax and abdomen. The head is a tagma made up of 6 segments and an anterior non-segmental acron that have all fused together into a head-capsule or cranium. The thorax consists of 3 segments, each of which carries a pair of legs. In addition, the 2nd and 3rd segments each carry a pair of wings. The thorax is connected with the head by the cervix or neck. The abdomen comprises 11 segments and a terminal non-segmental telson, but reduction and fusion in the posterior region often results in only 10 or fewer divisions being visible.

3.0 BODY REGIONS

3.1 THE HEAD AND ITS APPENDAGES

The insect’s head is an anterior tagma formed by the fusion of six segments namely preantennary, antennary, intercalary, mandibular, maxillary and labial segments. The head tagma is highly sclerotized to from a hard capsule or cranium. The head articulates with the thorax through the neck or cervix. Sclerites of the head include the Vertex, Frons, Clypeus, Gena, Occiput. Sutures of Head include the Epicranial suture (which is an inverted `Y') Epistomal suture, Clypeo labral suture, Post occipital suture. Posterior opening of the cranium through which aorta, foregut, ventral nerve cord and neck muscles passes is known as Occipital foramen. The appendages of the head are called Cephalic appendages and they include a pair of compound eyes, 0-3 simple eyes or ocelli, a pair of antenna and mouth parts.

Functions of the insect head include – food ingestion, sensory perception, coordination of body activities and protection of the coordinating centres.




3.1.1 TYPES OF INSECT HEAD

Based on the inclination of long axis of the head and orientation of mouth parts there are three types of insect heads.

1) HYPOGNATHOUS (Hypo – below; gnathous – jaw)

This type is also called orthopteroid type. The long axis of the head is vertical. It is at right angles to the long axis of the body. Mouth parts are ventrally placed and project downwards. Found in grasshoppers

2) PROGNATHOUS (Pro- in front; gnathous – jaw)

This type is also called coleopteroid type. The long axis of the head is horizontal. It is in line with the long axis of the body. Mouth parts are directed forward. Found in ground beetles.

3) OPISTHOGNATHOUS (Opistho – behind; gnathous – jaw)

This type is also called hemipteroid type or opisthorhychous. Head is deflexed. Mouth parts are directed backwards and held in between the fore-legs. Found in Stink bugs.




3.1.2 APPENDAGES OF THE HEAD

A. INSECT ANTENNAE AND THEIR MODIFICATIONS

One of the main features of an insect’s head is its antennae. All adult insects (except, at times, scale insects) have one pair. They usually are located between or in front of the eyes. The insect antennae are seg¬mented. The first two proximal segments are referred to as the scape and pedicel, respectively. The remaining antennal segments (flagellomeres) are jointly called the flagellum. Insect antennae vary greatly in form and complex¬ity. They are primarily used as organs of smell, but in some insects they may serve additional functions such as detection of motion and orientation, sound, humidity, and even in mating.

Types of insect antenna

1. Aristate: are pouch-like with a lateral bristle. Example: House flies.

2. Capitate: are abruptly clubbed at the end. Example: butterflies.

3. Clavate: are gradually clubbed at the end. Example: carrion beetles.

4. Filiform: are thread-like in shape. Examples: ground beetles, cockroaches.

5. Geniculate: are hinged or bent like an elbow. Example: ants.

6. Lamellate: are antennae that end in nested plates. Example: scarab beetles.

7. Moniliform: are beadlike in shape. Examples: termites.

8. Pectinate: are comb-like in shape. Examples: fireflies

9. Plumose: are feather-like in shape. Examples: moths and mosquitoes.

10. Serrate: are saw-toothed in shape. Examples: click beetles.

11. Setaceous: are bristle-like in shape. Examples: dragonflies and damselflies.




B. INSECT MOUTH PARTS AND THEIR MODIFICATIONS

The insect mouthpart consists of the labrum, mandibles, maxillae (plural maxilla) and labium. The labrum or upper lip is a flap like sclerite. The mandibles or jaws are highly sclerotized paired structures that are used for biting and chewing. The maxillae are paired structures with segmented palps. The labium or lower lip is made up of a pair of segmented palps.

Insect mouthparts all have the same basic structure but are modified in different insect orders in relation to their feeding habits. Functionally speaking, the insect’s mouthparts are of two main types namely –

1) Mandibulate (chewing): used for biting and grinding solid foods. Examples: Dragonflies, termites, adult lacewings, beetles, ants, cockroaches, grasshoppers, etc.

Larvae generally have chewing-type mouthparts regardless of the kind they will have as adults.

2) Haustellate (sucking): primarily used for sucking liquids. Types of haustellate mouthparts include –

a. Piercing-sucking mouthparts

These are stylate type of haustellate mouthparts. They are used to penetrate solid tissue and then suck up liquid food. Found in cicadas, aphids, and other bugs (order Hemiptera), sucking lice, stable flies and mosquitoes (order Diptera).

b. Siphoning mouthparts

These are non-stylate type of haustellate mouthparts. They are used to suck liquids. Examples: Butterflies, moths etc.

c. Sponging mouthparts

These are non-stylate type of haustellate mouthparts. Sponging mouthparts are used to sponge and suck liquids. Examples: House flies and blow flies.

There also are intermediate types of mouthparts: rasping-sucking (found in thrips) and chewing-lapping (found in honeybees, wasps and bumblebees). The chewing mouth type is more primi¬tive and generally stronger than sucking types. Some insects have different mouthparts as larvae and adults. Nymphs have mouthparts similar to those of adults. For some adult insects, the mouthparts are vesti¬gial or non functional.




3.2 THE THORAX AND ITS APPENDAGES

The thorax is made up of three consecutive segments namely the prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax. Each of these segments bears a pair of legs. When the mesothorax and metathorax each bear a pair of wings they are collectively referred to as Pterothorax. If only one pair of wings is present, it is usually attached to the middle segment. The prothorax does not bear wings. The segment of the thorax is made up of four sclerites or body plates namely a dorsal body plate (Tergum or Notum), a ventral body plate (Sternum) and 2 lateral plates (Pleura). The notum of the prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax are called pronotum, mesonotum and metanotum respectively.

The thorax is concerned mainly with the function of locomotion.










3.2.1 APPENDAGES OF THE THORAX

A. LEGS AND THEIR MODIFICATIONS

Insects characteristically have three pairs of jointed legs on thoracic segments. True legs are found only in the adult stages of insects. However, pro-legs or pseudo-legs, which are fleshy body projections used for clinging, may occur on the larvae of some insect orders e.g. Order Lepidoptera. The prothoracic, mesothroacic and metathoracic legs are called forelegs, mid-legs and hind legs, respectively.

Each leg has six major components, listed here from proximal to distal: coxa (plural coxae), trochanter, femur (plural femora), tibia (plural tibiae), tarsus (plural tarsi), and pretarsus. The femur and tibia may be modified with spines. The tarsus appears to be divided into one to five "pseudo-segments" called tarsomeres.

Like the mouthparts and antennae, insect legs are highly modified for different functions, depending on the environment and habit of the insect. Leg modification in insects include –

1. Ambulatory legs: are used for walking. Examples: Bugs (order Hemiptera), leaf beetles.

2. Cursorial legs: are similar to ambulatory legs in structure. They are modified for running. Note the long, thin leg segments. Examples: Cockroaches, ground beetles.

3. Saltatorial legs: are hind legs adapted for jumping. Examples: Grasshoppers, crickets.

4. Raptorial legs: are fore legs modified for grasping preys. Examples: Mantids (order Mantodea), ambush bugs, giant water bugs and water scorpions (order Hemiptera).

5. Fossorial legs: are fore legs modified for digging. Examples: Ground dwelling insects like mole crickets and cicada nymphs.

6. Natatorial legs: are modified for swimming. Examples: Aquatic beetles and bugs.

7. Scansorial legs: are modified for clinging. Examples: Louse

8. Foragial legs: Legs of honeybee are adapted for various functions. The legs are equipped with a pollen comb to remove pollen from body, a pollen basket to store pollen, a spur on the apex of middle tibia to scrape pollen from the baskets and an antennal comb on the front legs to remove pollen from antenna.




B. INSECT WINGS AND THEIR MODIFICATION

Insects are the only flying invertebrates. Wings are present only in adult stage. Number of wings varies from two pairs to none. Certain primitive insects like silver fish and spring tail are primarily apetrous. Ecto parasites like head louse, poultry louse and flea are secondarily apterous. Wings are deciduous in ants and termites. There is only one pair of wings in the true flies. Normally two pairs of wings are present in insects and they are borne on the pterothoracic segments. Wing surfaces may be covered with fine hairs or scales, or they may be bare. Venation (the arrangement of veins in the wings) is different for each group of insects and is used as a means of identification.

The wings of insects may have the following modifications –

1. Tegmina (singular tegmen): are the leathery forewings of insects in the orders Orthoptera, Blattaria, and Mantodea. They help protect the delicate hind wings.

2. Elytra (singular elytron): are the hardened, heavily sclerotized forewings of beetles and are modified to protect the hind wings when at rest.

3. Hemelytra: are variations of the elytra. The forewings of Hemipterans are said to be hemelytrous because they are hardened throughout the proximal two-thirds, while the distal portion is membranous. Unlike elytra, hemelytra function primarily as flight wings.

4. Halteres: are an extreme modification among the order Diptera (true flies), in which the hind wings are reduced to knobs used for balance and direction during flight.

5. Hamuli: are tiny hooks on the front edge of the hind wings. They hold front and hind wings together during flight. i.e. they are used for wing coupling.

6. Frenulum: is a large bristle on the hind wings of some insects in the order Lepidoptera. It is also used for wing coupling.

7. Membranous wings: are thin and more or less transparent in appearance. Some may however be darkened. Found in the order Odonata, Neuroptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Isoptera.

8. Scales: some insect wings are covered with scales which make the wings colourful. Examples: Butterflies, moths and caddisflies.




3.3 THE ABDOMEN AND APPENDAGES

The abdomen is a highly flexible tagma formed by the fusion of 9-11 segments. Each abdominal segment is made up of only two sclerite namely dorsal body plate (tergum) and ventral body plate (sternum). The first eight abdominal segments each bear a pair of spiracles. Abdominal appendages are genital organs and a pair of cerci at the tip of the abdo-men. They cerci may be short, as in grasshoppers, termites and cockroaches; extremely long, as in mayflies; or curved, as in earwigs.






The abdomen is concerned with the function of reproduction and metabolism.
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INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF ARTHROPODS

1.0 ENTOMOLOGY (INSECT SCIENCE)
2.0 PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
Aims
To have a basic understanding of what the science of entomology is all about.
To review the classification and features of significant groups in the Phylum Arthropoda.
1.0 ENTOMOLOGY (INSECT SCIENCE)
1.1 WHAT IS ENTOMOLOGY?
Entomology is a basic and applied science that is dedicated to the study of insects and other related arthropods.
1.2 IMPORTANCE OF ENTOMOLOGY?
For more than 350 million years, insects have survived on Earth, adapting and evolving to become the creatures we see and know today. Through the millennia, insects have become integral parts of almost all ecosystems imaginable. Insects are the most numerous and diverse form of life on the planet. While some insects cause harm by spreading diseases, destroying plants, or damaging structures, others are beneficial in that they pollinate our crops, kill and eat harmful insects, and help recycle nutrients in nature. The study of insects helps us understand how to protect the lives and property of people from those insects that are harmful. Furthermore, applied entomology, which is the practical application of insect science, helps use the skills and knowledge gained through entomology research to teach farmers how to increase their yields through sound pest management strategies, to protect and conserve endangered species and fragile habitats, and to prevent  insects from spreading devastating diseases like malaria and sleeping sickness. Insects are also studied as models to help us understand the physiological and biological processes of other animals even man. For example, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has brought significant advances to research in neurodegenerative diseases in humans.
1.3 CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN ENTOMOLOGY
Agricultural entomologists: These group of entomologists study insects of Agricultural importance. While some insects are beneficial to Agriculture in that they aid pollination and recycle nutrients in the soil others are Agricultural pests that cause devastating losses to crops on the field and in storage. Up to 40 percent of world’s food production is lost every year to insect pests. Agricultural entomologists thus work with farmers and other agricultural stakeholders like Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to manage insect pests while protecting the beneficial ones.

Medical entomologists: Each year millions of people die from diseases that are spread by insects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a child dies every minute from malaria, which is spread by mosquitoes. In Africa and other parts of the world, diseases such as malaria, river blindness and sleeping sickness reduce the agricultural productivity of farmers and their households and by extension, the food production of their country. Medical entomologists in collaboration with health organizations like WHO thus devote themselves to understanding how vectors transmit pathogens and how to effectively control them.

Veterinary entomologists: Several insects and arthropods are pests of livestock, wildlife and pets. These insect pests like flies, fleas, ticks and even mosquitoes are capable of causing diseases and irritation to farm animals, wildlife and domestic pets. Veterinary entomologists thus work with zookeepers, ranchers, forest rangers, and veterinarians to help them protect animals from dangerous insects.

Taxonomic entomologists: Of the over 30 million species of insects on Earth, only about one million have actually been discovered and described. Identification and description of insect species are essential to effective control, management and study of any insect. Taxonomic entomologists are continuously conducting studies that will help discover the several unidentified insect species.

Forensic entomologists: The study of entomology also plays a significant role in the fight against crime. Forensic entomologists help the police in solving murder cases. They do this by examining the bodies to find insects, which may provide clues about the time of death and how the victim died. Using this information, the police are able to arrest suspects and probably convict the criminal.

Forest entomologists: While some insects are helpful to trees, shrubs, and bushes, others may harm them. Some insects damage trees by boring through them, eating essential parts or by spreading diseases. Forest entomologists specialize in insects that harm wild plants and forests and study ways to prevent and control them.

Structural entomologists: Several insects like ants, cockroaches, termites and flies are peridomestic.  Many of them are capable of causing serious damage to structures and foodstuffs in homes, hotels or elsewhere. Structural entomologists study and discover ways to keep insects out of buildings, and ways to get rid of them. These entomologists work with pest-management professionals and households to teach them the best ways to deal with insects that invade buildings.

Military entomologists: The outcome of any battle will be determined by the physical health of the soldiers amongst other factors. Though military entomologists do not participate in active combat, they help to identify, before the arrival of the army, the presence of any insect pest in the camp area that will be deleterious to the health and food resources of the army.

2.0 PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
2.1 WHAT ARE ARTHROPODS?
The name “arthropod” comes from two Greek words, arthros, “jointed,” and podes, “feet.” The Arthropods are the most successful of all animals. They are made up of over a million species. Members of this phylum range in adult size from microscopic to minute to very large. Generally all arthropods have segmented bodies with jointed appendages. They possess a hard outer or external skeleton or covering made of chitin termed the exoskeleton. Arthropods are bilaterally symmetrical with a ventrally situated nervous system and a dorsally positioned brain and heart. All arthropods have a distinct head, sometimes fused with the thorax to form a tagma called the cephalothorax. Some arthropods have many body segments. In others, the segments have become fused together into functional groups, or tagmata (singular, tagma), such as the head and thorax of an insect. This fusing process is known as tagmatization or tagmosis.
2.2 SUB-GROUPS IN THE PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
A. Subphylum Trilobitomorpha: This sub-phylum is made up of the earliest known members of the arthropods – the trilobites which belong to the Class Trilobita. They occurred some 600 million years ago and have been extinct for about 200 millions years. Their bodies were divided sideways into three “lobes”. The central lobe consists of a cephalon (head), thorax (body) and pygidium (tail). Trilobites, were the first animals whose eyes were capable of a high degree of resolution.
B. Subphylum Chelicerata (cheli = a claw, hoof): The Chelicerates have their bodies divided into a cephalothorax (cephalo = head) and an abdomen.  The first pair of appendages of their bodies is mouthparts called chelicerae that function in feeding. The chelicerae may be modified into pincers or fangs. These arthropods lack mandibles or jaws. Classes under this sub-phylum include
1) Class Merostomata or Xiphosura (xipho = a sword; ura = tail): Members of this class have a horseshoe-shaped carapace covering their cephalothorax. Their abdomen is thin, long, and pointed, hence the class name. They are marine, typically found in intertidal areas. Example includes the horseshoe crabs.
2) Class Arachnida (arachni = spider): Members have simple eyes on top of their cephalothorax. The first pair of appendages is modified as chelicerae while the second pair of appendages is modified as pedipalps (pedi = foot; palpi = a feeler). Arachnids have four pairs of walking legs. Occasionally there are other appendages, like the spinnerets in spiders. Arachnids breathe via book lungs. Orders under this class include
a. Order Scorpionida: this includes scorpions. They are arachnids whose pedipalps are modified into pincers. Scorpions use these pincers to handle and tear apart their food.
b. Order Phalangida (phalang = finger, toe): this includes the daddy-long-legs and harvestmen, which have long, slender legs. They are not spiders and do not produce webs.
c. Order Araneida or Araneae (aranea, aranei = spider): This includes the spiders, which have the chelicerae modified as fangs with poison glands (used to paralyze prey), have spinnerets on the abdomen from which they produce silk for their webs, and are beneficial predators.
3) Class Pycnogonida: This includes the sea spiders. Sea spiders are common in coastal waters. Adult sea spiders are mostly external parasites or predators of other animals like sea anemones.
C. Subphylum Crustacea (crusta = crust, rind): These are mainly aquatic animals that include several species of crayfish, crabs, lobsters etc. Crustaceans have the head and thorax combined into one body region, the cephalothorax, as well as an abdomen. Most crustaceans have gills, two pairs of antennae, three types of chewing appendages, and various numbers of pairs of legs. Class in sub-phylum Crustacea include -
1) Class Malacostraca:
a) Order Decapoda: The decapods consist of large, primarily marine crustaceans such as shrimps, lobsters, and crabs, along with their freshwater relatives, the crayfish. These decapod crustaceans have five pairs of walking legs including a large pincer, the cheliped.
b) Order Isopoda: Although most crustaceans are marine, many occur in fresh water and a few, like the pillbugs and sowbugs, have become terrestrial.
D. Subphylum Atelocerata (formerly Mandibulata): These include those arthropods with biting jaws, called mandibles. In mandibulates, the most anterior appendages are one or more pairs of sensory antennae, and the next appendages are the mandibles. Among the mandibulates, insects have traditionally been set apart from the crustaceans, grouped instead with the myriapods (centipedes and millipedes) in a taxon called Tracheata. This phylogeny, still widely employed, dates back to benchmark work by the great comparative biologist Robert Snodgrass in the 1930s. He pointed out that insects, centipedes, and millipedes are united by several seemingly powerful attributes:
A tracheal respiratory system.
Use of Malpighian tubules for excretion.
Uniramous (single-branched) legs.
In recent years, a mass of accumulating morphological and molecular data has led many taxonomists to suggest new arthropod taxonomies. The most recent morphological study of arthropod phylogeny, reported in 1998, was based on 100 conserved anatomical features of the central nervous system. It concluded insects were more closely related to crustaceans than to any other arthropod group. This closeness is also supported by molecular evidences.
Classes under the sub-phylum Atelocerata include -
1) Class Chilopoda (chilo = lip). These are the centipedes. Adult centipedes do not have hundred legs as the name suggests. They may however have 30 or more legs. Their bodies are divided into head and trunk regions with the first pair of legs on the trunk modified into poison jaws to capture and kill prey. On the trunk region, centipedes have one pair of appendages per segment. All known species of Centipedes are carnivorous and feed mainly on insects
2) Class Diplopoda (diplo = double, two): These are the millipedes. The adult millipedes also have head and trunk regions like the centipedes but with two pairs of legs on each body segment. Each segment of a millipede is actually a tagma. In contrast to centipedes, most millipedes are herbivores, feeding mainly on decaying vegetation. A few millipedes are carnivorous. Millipedes live primarily in damp, protected places, such as under leaf litter, in rotting logs, under bark or stones, or in the soil.
3) Class Hexapoda or Insecta (hexa = 6): These are the insects. Insects have three body regions: head, thorax and abdomen. Most also have both compound and simple eyes, mouthparts (which include a labrum, mandibles, maxillae, and a labium), 3 pairs of walking legs, one on each of the three thoracic segments. Many insects have wings, which are not modified appendages, merely flaps of the exoskeleton of the meso- and metathoracic segments. The chief internal organs of insects include a tubular digestive tract, a long valvular heart for pumping blood, an intricate muscular system, a system of pipe-like tracheae for respiration, paired reproductive organs opening at the posterior end of the body, a nervous system consisting of a brain, paired segmental ganglia and connectives.
2.3 SUB-GROUPS IN THE CLASS INSECTA
1.0 Subclass Entognatha (ento = within; gnatho = jaw/mouth): They have their mouthparts within the head, are primarily wingless and exhibit simple metamorphosis. They are no longer considered to be insects.
i. Order Collembola: They have no wings. Examples- springtails
ii. Order Protura: They have no wings. Example- Acerentomon spp
2.0 Subclass Ectognatha: (ecto = outside): These have their mouthparts stick out from head. Under this sub class we have
a) Super Order Apterygota (a- = without; ptero = wing): They are primarily wingless and exhibit simple metamorphosis.
i. Order Thysanura: They have a flattened body with three tail-like structures on the posterior end. Their body is often covered with scales. Examples -silverfish  and firebrats
b) Super Order Pterygota: they are winged and a few are secondarily wingless. This super Order is futher divided into -
Exopterygota:  (exo = out, outside): Exopterygotes exhibit gradual metamorphosis, with wing pads that develop externally. Young exopterygotes are called nymphs or naiads if aquatic. Orders under this division include –
i. Order Ephemeroptera (ephemer = temporary): Members include the mayflies.
ii. Order Odonata (odonto = tooth): Members include the dragonfly and damselfly.
iii. Order Orthoptera (ortho = straight): Members include the grasshopper, katydid, camel cricket etc.
iv. Order Phasmida (phasmato = apparition, phantom): Members include the walking stick, leaf insect.
v. Order Mantodea       (manti, mantid, mantis = a soothsayer): Members include the praying mantis.
vi. Order Blattaria (blatta = cockroach). Members include the cockroach.
The orders Blattaria, Mantodea, and Phasmida, used to be grouped under one order, Order Dictyoptera.
vii. Order Isoptera (iso = equal): Members include the termites.
viii. Order Dermaptera (derm = skin). Members include the earwig
ix. Order Plecoptera (pleco = twine, twist, braid, twisted, folded): Members include the stoneflies
x. Order Phthiraptera (phthir = lice) — ectoparasites (mostly on birds or mammals). This Order has the following suborders. Suborder Mallophaga e.g. chewing lice and Suborder Anoplura e.g. sucking lice.
xi. Order Hemiptera (hemi = half). The true bugs often have long antennae divided into a small number of segments, and the front wings can be somewhat hardened. Some bugs resemble beetles, but beetles have wing covers that do not overlap, unlike the bugs.
Traditionally, the Order Hemiptera was split into two suborders: the Heteroptera (e.g. shield bugs, bed bugs, assassin bugs etc) and the Homoptera (e.g. aphids, scale insects moss bugs cicadas etc). This distinction was primarily based on the structure of the wings. Recent genetic phylogenic studies have however shown that though the groups within the Homoptera share a common ancestor, they are not as closely related as previously thought. Consequently, the suborder Homoptera has been scrapped. The insects that make up the suborder Homoptera have been regrouped into three new suborders namely: Auchenorrhyncha (e.g. cicadas), Sternorrhyncha (e.g. aphids. scale insects) and Coleorrhyncha (e.g. moss bugs). There are thus four suborders in the Order Hemiptera.
Endopterygota (endo = within, inner): Endopterygotes exhibit complete metamorphosis, with wing pads that develop internally until pupa stage. Young endopterygotes are called larva. Orders under this division include –
i. Order Neuroptera (neuro = nerve, sinew, cord): Members include the dobsonfly, lacewing, antlion etc.
ii. Order Coleoptera (coleo = a sheath): Order Coleoptera has the most species of any insect order. Members include the beetles
iii. Order Mecoptera (meco = long, length): Members include the scorpion fly
iv. Order Siphonaptera (siphon = tube; a- = without): Members include the flea.
v. Order Diptera (di = two): Members include the flies and mosquitoes. Their hind wings are modified as knob-like balance structures called halteres.
vi. Order Lepidoptera (lepido = scale) Members include the butterflies, skippers, and moths.
vii. Order Hymenoptera (hymeno = a membrane): Members include the honeybees, ants, wasps and hornets.
Success of Insects as a Group
Insects have attained the largest number of kinds of any animal group with an estimated 950,000 described species. The total number of described species for all animal groups is 1.6M. The great success of insects colonizing every conceivable habitat on earth can be attributed to the following factors or reasons:
1. High adaptive capacity.
2. High reproductive capacity (high fecundity).
3. Capacity of flight.
4. Dispersability by air current.
5. Ability to consume different kinds and qualities of food.
6. The insect Exoskeleton – the exoskeleton performs a number of functions e.g. protecting insects from desiccation or excessive evapo-transpiration, mechanical injury and invasion by pathogens. Another feature of the insect exoskeleton is its adaptiveness to a myriad of forms and colours. This is the basis of mimicry in insects, which is a survival strategy in many insect species.
7. Smallness of size.
8. Efficient water conservation methods – possession of waxy cuticle greatly reduces the rate of transpiration from the surface of the body. Another device is the closing mechanism possessed by the tracheal system and the spiracles which control water loss while at the same time allowing enough oxygen to go through for respiration purposes.


9. Exhibition of metamorphosis.
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Principle of fish farming

Fish is important because it contain proteins (body building food), vitamins, minerals, salt, fats and carbohydrates. Fish is a first class protein as is globally classified for its sterling quality in terms of amino acid. It contains two essential amino acids that are needed by the body for growth and repairs of –worn-out tissues. It is known that fish accounts for 40% of animal protein in Nigeria diets (anachie, 1974).
      Fish farming is the growing of fish in ponds. It can be used to improve land especially not good for growing crop or arable farming e.g. marshy land and water logged areas. In places where paddy rice are grown fish farming can be incorporated to get the best out of the land. Similarly, fish ponds can be build as part of the water supply and irrigation system. When fish farming is integrated to crop cultivation the farmer gets a good yield that is higher than a farm with no fish ponds.
        The knowledge of fish farm can be used to produce fingerlings (young fish) which can be used to stock our rivers, ponds, reservoirs, rivers and streams to sustain the capture fisheries which has been catching less due to over fishing and ecological changes.
        Fish farming can reduce the huge amount of foreign exchange being spent by African countries on fish importation. Fish growth in ponds can be controlled; the farmers themselves select the fish species they wish to raise. Fish farming can be integrated with other livestocks to create individual income and improve is water management.
                           TYPES OF FISH PONDS
                 There are different types of fish ponds
1. Earthen fish ponds (farms)
2. Concrete fish ponds
3. Plastic / polymer ponds
4. Fiber glass ponds
5. Wooden ponds
Earthen fish ponds – are dug out ponds from the land (soil) and are of various types. They are constructed (made) in different types and components. Other factors involved in the selection of the site include visual survey, soil types, topography of the area, source of water supply etc.
A fish pond can either be intensive or extensive. An intensive fish culture is when the farmer takes control of the system management by given the farm full attention of intensive feeding and management control to achieve best result and yield from the farm where as an extensive fish farm is where the farmer given little or no attention to the farm leaving the fishes to feed on their own and the farmer expects little or no return from the farm.
A. Contour ponds-Are earthen ponds constructed on slopping ground. The bottom walls of the ponds lies along the contour of the ground. Contour ponds are constructed along the sides of valley. Water supply into the ponds comes in a furrow from a stream or sometimes a conservation dam.
 
B. Barrage ponds- Are earthen ponds constructed by building a wall across a small dam or stream and the ponds therefore looks like a small conservation. They are usually built on a mushy land where water inlet (supply) to the ponds is from a spring or underground water. It is important that this type of pond is not built near a stream during heavy rainfall.
 The disadvantage of barrage ponds over the earthen ponds is that they are prune to disease outbreak because the ponds are linked to each other.

C. Paddy ponds – Are constructed on fadama and wet lands and floody lands not useful for arable farming (swampy and flood plains) they are also constructed on paddy rice farm where they are stocked with Tilapia that controls the weeds of the rice field.

D. CONCRETE PONDS- They are constructed with blocks and concrete according to various types, they could be rectangular, circular and are of various sizes. They are fitted with water pipes to serve as inlet and outlet water supplies. They could be stagnant or flow trough or re circulatory.

E. PLASTIC / POLYMER – Are of the same principle with concrete ponds they are of different sizes and shapes and can either serve for stagnant, flow trough or re circulatory.

F. FIBER GLASS –Are more expensive but have similar use with those of concrete and plastic/polymer.

G. WOODEN TYPES – They are made of woods and in different sizes and shapes – the inner walls are lined with rubber to prevent water leakages and are of similar use with other types of ponds.

H. STAGNANT /STANDING PONDS – Are ponds stored with water and used to raise fish to table size without changing of the water until when the fish are harvested.

I. FLOW TROUGH SYSTEM – Are ponds filled with water to raise fish with continuous in flow and outflow of water throughout the period of raising the fish . This result in a lot of water usage and waste.

J. RECIRCULATORY – This is a method where water is been used and are re circled without waste of water but very expensive as it needs constant supply energy to supply electricity to run the system.

K. HOME STEAD POND – This is a pond constructed to raise fish only for home consumption. It could be earthen, concrete or polymer.

L. MONOCULTURE – This is a practice where only one type of fish are raised in a pond.

M. POLYCULTURE - Where many species of fish are raised in a pond.

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